the introduction of the chemical industrial Revolution
One of the first chemical company to be mass-produced through industrial processes was sulfuric acid. In 1736, pharmacist Joshua Ward invented a method to produce saltpeter by heating the saltpeter to oxidize the sulfur and combine with water. This is the first time that sulfuric acid is actually produced on a large scale. In 1749, John Roebuck and Samuel Gabet were the first to build a large factory in Preston Penn, Scotland, using a lead condensing chamber to make sulfuric acid. In the early 18th century, people bleached fabrics with spoiled urine or yogurt and exposed them to the sun for a long time, which caused serious production bottlenecks. By the middle of this century, sulfuric acid and lime began to be used as a more effective agent, but it was not until Charles Tennant discovered bleach that stimulated the creation of the first great chemical industry enterprise. His powder is made from the reaction of chlorine and dry lime and proved to be a cheap and successful product. He opened a factory in Saint-Lolox, north of Glasgow, and its output increased from 52 tons in 1799 to nearly 10,000 tons five years later. Soda ash has been used in the production of glass, textiles, soap and paper since ancient times, while in Western Europe, the source of potassium carbonate is traditionally wood ash. In the 18th century, this source became uneconomical due to deforestation, and the French Academy of Sciences offered a 2,400 livre reward for the method of producing alkali from sea salt (sodium chloride). In 1791, Nicolas LeBlanc obtained the patent of LeBlanc craftsmanship. He established the LeBlanc factory in Saint-Denis. He did not receive a bonus due to the French Revolution. However, the LeBron process really began in the United Kingdom in 1816. William Losh established the first soda factory in Losh, England, and Wilson and Bell in the River Tyne (Wilson and Bell). Tyne) established a factory, but due to the high tariffs imposed on salt production, the scale of the factory was still small until 1824. When these tariffs were lifted, the British soda industry was able to expand rapidly. James Muspratt's chemical plant in Liverpool and Charles Tennant's integrated plant near Glasgow have become the world's largest chemical production centers. By the 1870s, the annual output of 200,000 tons of soda in the UK exceeded all other countries in the world combined. As the industrial revolution matured, these large factories began to produce a variety of chemicals. Initially, a large amount of alkaline waste was discharged into the environment from the production process of soda, which triggered the passage of the first environmental legislation in 1863. This requires strict inspections of factories and heavy fines for factories that pollute excessively. People soon invented a method to extract useful by-products from alkali. The Solvay process was invented in 1861 by Ernest Solvay, a Belgian industrial chemist. In 1864, Solvay and his brother Alfred built a factory in Charleroi, a small town in Belgium. In 1874, they expanded a larger factory in Nancy, France. Compared with the LeBron method, the new process is more economical and less polluting, and has been widely used. In the same year, Ludwig Mond visited Solvay to obtain the right to use its craft. He and John Brunner established Brenner, Mond & Co., and established Solvay in Winnington, England. Granville factory. Mond played an important role in the commercial success of the Solvay process; between 1873 and 1880, he made several improvements to eliminate by-products that could slow or stop the mass production of sodium carbonate. The production of chemical products from fossil fuels began in the early 19th century. In 1822, the Burnington Chemical Plant in Edinburgh began processing coal tar and ammonia waste liquid for gas lighting, producing naphtha, bituminous oil (later called creosote), bitumen, soot (carbon black), and chlorination Ammonium later added ammonium sulfate, asphalt pavement, tar oil and coke.